Sunday, March 31, 2019

The Background Information Of Malaysia Airlines Marketing Essay

The Background education Of Malaysia blood bournes Marketing EssayMalaysian product linelines System Berhad (MAS) is the holding company for Malaysias bailiwick skyway carrier, virtuoso of Asias fastest growing skyways. Through several opposite subsidiaries, the company manufactures agate linecraft parts, byers trucking and onus transportation go, caters food, provides laundry and dry-cleaning services for pushoerways and new(prenominal)wise industrial institutions, and oversees a travel agency. Company Ch crinkleman Tajudin Ramli owns a meaningful sh atomic number 18 in Malaysian joblines System (MAS), and the Malaysian disposal retains a strong voice in MAS affairs.In the premium merchandise segment, MAS is on a down in the mouther floor tremendous pres positive(predicate) from full service carriers (FSCs) who atomic number 18 striding ahead with first- yr class products, cutting and modern aircraft, and fast-expanding driveways. On the other hand, in the equipment casualty driven market segment, MAS is as well as strongly pushed by low exist carriers (LCCs) with low nourishments. In a nutshell, MAS must reinvent itself to fend off competition from FSCs and LCCs. MAS aspires to become the Worlds Five Star Value Carrier. MAS believe that they relieve oneself to reinvent themselves to achieve this vision.CUsersmicDownloadsmas.jpg3.0 Situation Analysis3.1 General environs AnalysisDemographic segmentThe demographic segment is to the highest degree the commonwealth size, age structure, geographic distribution, ethnic mix and income distribution. Malaysia is a multiracial acres and its population comp testifys of 28.6 trillion of people. The government aims for increasing the national population to lxx million by the division 2100. in that location is 63.8 portion of the population lives in urban ara while simply 36.2 percent of population bash in rural area.The passenger load factor (PLF) of an respiratory tract, is a stair of how much of an airlines passenger run awaying skill is used. It is passenger-kilometersflown as a percentage ofavailable. The PLF of Malaysia is 67.8, 60.7 for Asia, 74.9 for europium and shopping centre East, 73.6 for Australia and newborn Zealand, 72.6 for Africa and South America, 60.6 for Orient and North America.Besides, Malaysia is recently realize a new policy which with the purpose of making the Malaysia to become the tall income nation. This signifi foott policy had show the increase of Malaysian income in the succeeding(a) time.Sociocultural plane sectionThe labor force in Malaysia has been increase from year 2003 to year 2010. It reached a capacity of 11.38 million of people in the year 2010. http// It is found that the youths who are in between of the age of 15 to 34 basically make up the commodiousst labour force in Malaysia. They are makeup of 42.5% of the total population, roughly 9.75 million of people . http// It is also found that the women in the workforce call for got increased. This is due to the case that a lot of countries rush endorsed legislation such(prenominal) as Equal Opportunity for Women in the workplace Act to protect the women in the workforce. Besides, there are some a(prenominal) reasons to pardon why the women have increased in the workforce. For example, women are more improve and more skil guide. http// are various type of airline careers raise in the airline patience, such as pilot, captain, copilot, second officer or flight engineer, flight at hug drugdant, flight dispatcher, and meteorologist. air hose diligence employs those people with extremely diversify skills regard little of the sex. It is proved that the flight attendants comparable the stewardess or steward symbolize the major job sector in the airline industry. For instance, there a re nearly 80000 flight attendants in United States airline industry. http//, it is found that the age discrimination cases have been happened in the United States airlines. full stop to the pilots pick outd retirement policy such as Age 60 Rule, pilots are forced to retire at age 60. This is because the airline industry believed that the pilots are not able to per exploit the job well at the age of 60. They believed that the pilots are place the airline company and the passengers in jeopardy if they are permit to fly. http// Segment advertiselines have participated in globalization and consolidation. They link their network through the establishment of alliances and partnerships to expand the access to their clients. For example, the terra firma gentle wind market is shared between the global alliances such as KLM or North West, Atlantic virtue alliance, STAR, and Br itish Airways or Ameri whoremaster Airlines alliance. http// airlines industry has targeted some relevant new long name global market in order to expand their services such as Asia Pacific and china, South Asia, Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania (Australasia). It is believed that close of the airlines exert the new global market in Asia Pacific and China. This is due to reason that China has grown promptly and the urbanization of China had caused it became the dynamic aviation markets. The urban population has been increased from 302 million in year 1990 to 622 million in age 2009. It is expected the population provide come up to one billion by year 2025. Besides, the domestic passenger calling is projected to grow on an average rate of 7.9% in China. Boeing, as the Chinas leading provider of passenger air excogitatees, predicts that about 71% of the demand in China is the single-aisle airplanes with the full deliv eries of 3090. http// Environment SegmentThe neat majority of the airlines have developed their own comprehensive programmed to reduce the environmental remains and produce a more environmentally product. Based on the research, the members of alliance in the airline industry have arouse the give notice strength of the aircraft and create not as much of greenhouse gases like the old aircraft and are quieter. Basically, there are some international industry bodies like IATA (the International Air Transport experience), Association of European Airlines, the Association of Asia Pacific Airlines, the USAs Air Transport and others are fully support the environmental activities.Based on the global perspective, there is fewer than 2 percent of the worlds total carbon dioxide which produc e by the airline industry macrocosm released. The passenger aircraft nowadays are more environmentally friendly as it is 70 percent more burn down efficient than 40 old age ago. For example, Airbus A380 and Boeing 787 Dreamliner are more fuel efficient aircraft. In addition, the noise footprint which produces by the aircraft is naturally 50% more quiet than those aircraft in ten years ago. According to IATA, airlines are planning to improve the fuel efficiency of the aircraft and carbon dioxide emissions in another 25 percent more. It is also plan that in the coming year 2025, the fuel efficiency of the aircraft ordain be improved in another 30 percent.http// teaching/fact-sheets/fact-sheet?objectID=35tempURLParam=http// SegmentThere are many airlines currently using proprietary frustrate in systems which bequeath convert all its check-counter to the ARINCs MUSE common -use system. City Airport, Logis strike (CALT) can make better use of its available counter blank shell because it allow for help to provide a convenient in townsfolk check in. The improvement of the check in counters at CALT is economically feasible. In addition, many of the airlines involved already have experience with ARINCs MUSE applied science at Incheon and Gimpo. They will be able to make the transition at CALT with little extra cost.http//, technology also can be used to enhance node relations. It will help to create contraption for consumers. The industry can offer travelers a web inter facial expression customized to a specific type of travel. The web interface can direct the guest to services with the desire benefits but cost a little more. some other than that, the automated check in machines is available in some airlines. Travelers can swipe a credit card through the automated check in machines as ident ification and print out their tickets instead of checking in with airport staff. The new technology also helps airlines to track lost luggage. There are Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems which will help to enhance aircraft unit loading devices and help boost security.http// SegmentA low cost airline generally has many features that differentiate it from the traditional carriers. These features include ticketless travel, online ticket sales, no international offices, no frequent flyer points, no free food and beverages, no in-flight magazines, no club lounges and use of subsidiary city airports. In the early economic regulation of airlines, the government is concerned more on their participation in the airmail system. The Air Mail Act of 1925 allowed the U.S. government to pay airlines for carrying the mails.http// undertake/Government_Role/Econ_Reg/ POL16.htmBesides that, Air Asia was re-launched in Malaysia as a low jazz and low cost domestic airline. Air Asia is promoting low fare of Indonesia Malaysia commove which will help it to open the Indonesia market. It will help Air Asia to rise up the economic growth. Air Asia also provides its services between capital of Singapore and Bangkok by introducing a 2nd daily flight to its quick schedule. Air Asia is offering its guests promotional fares to/from Singapore-Bangkok which is much lower than the lowest fare SGD$56 offered by full service carrier. It will help Air Asia to open the Singapore market.Political / Legal SegmentAirlines political achievement committee is a huge donor when compared it with those big companies in other industries. For example, Singapore Airline is currently facing or might face political strategies in near future. SIA could face problems of entering the new markets like China and increase market share in existing network. It is because many airlin es are still government owned and much of the trade in aviation services is still controlled by governments. Besides that, siamese connection Air Asia is a joint venture which is established by Air Asia with the jumble Corp. clamber Corp is owned by the family of Thailands Prime Minister, Thaksin Shinawatra. There are about 900 million baht will be invested in Thai Air Asia over a five-year period. Shin Corp oversees the finance and judicature of Thai Air Asia while Air Asia shoulders the responsibility for marketing and operations. Shin Corp has financial strength which will help to support Air Asia to grow. Therefore, Air Asia with its politically positionful may well grow up to bite. (function() var scribd = document.createElement( playscript) scribd.type = text/javascript scribd.async = true scribd.src = https// var s = document.getElementsByTagName(script)0 s.parentNode.insertBefore(scribd, s) )() 3.2 Porters Five Forces AnalysisThreat of new entrantsAs justify form the environment, any new company or organization to entering this airline industry is not easy due to the several kinds of entry barriers may discourage competitors from entering a market. The level of barriers to entry depends on the customer loyalty. For example, customers from Malaysia Airlines who is satisfying in brand loyalty will resolving power the tall switching costs towards other airline company. Exception for the price nociceptive customers, they may prefer cheaper price flight tickets. Besides, capital requirements for a new company to start up the airline business are huge. New entrant or infant company has to spend a full-size capital to compete with existing airlines due to the fail of participate in economies of scale. The cost of setting up of offices, sullying or leasing aircraft, hiring pilots and others staffs like air stewardess is a fix cost which create a gritty barrier for the new entrants. Inf ant firm or industry require a long time period to significant their products or services specialty, such as Full Service Carriers (FSC) in Malaysia Airline. Through government policy, governments can also control new firm to participant in airline industry. Government steep level of protection towards the major airline may result many new firm unable to tack the requirements and regulations and enter the industry. Thus, threat of entry towards the airline industry is high.Bargaining big businessman of suppliersPower of suppliers is important as it will directly affect the industry. In airline industry, the power of supplier is moderate result from there are sole(prenominal) two major supplier which are Airbus and Boeing so most of the firm like Malaysia Airline (MAS), Singapore Airline (SIA) and others need to buy the aircrafts from them. The satisfactory substitute products are low make the larger of power in suppliers. In addition, industry firms are not a significant custom er for supplier group. The suppliers good is important to the MAS in order to harbour a success in market place.Power of buyersBuyers are one of the factors which will impact to industry. Nowadays, price sensitive customers are increase directly. On the other hand, number of customers who is concern the services differentiation is rise and result low cost oriented and full service carrier oriented. Customers secure the only small portion of the industrys output and do not large participate in the company annual sales. Besides, buyer or customers will obtain a high switching cost in call of loyalty result from the MAS superior services performance. Thus, the bargaining power of buyers low to Malaysia Airline.Threat of substituteThreat of substitute is substitute is product or service which can replace the original products or service. Not only the others airlines, customers also can choose others transportation system such as train, bus and ferries but air travel is more convenien t and double-quick compare with other transportation. Businesses which require a faster and safe tour may choose airline cargo as their transportation.Intensity contender among competitorsIn this case, the threat of rivalry is high to the Malaysia Airline. This is because various large as balanced competitors such as Air Asia, Tiger Airway, Singapore Airline and etc are provide almost the similar services. As a result, high rivalry to the MAS because more firms must compete with same customers and resources. Besides, lack of differentiation product is difficult to compete with other firm. Malaysia Airlines (MAS) have successfully place their product as full services carrier and have less rivalry. Rivalry in slow industry growth becomes more anxious as firms battle to increase their market shares. The main competitors of MAS are Asiatic carrier like Singapore Airlines. So MAS intends to reassess the proceedsiveness of its route network both international and domestic. This in volves reviewing the viability of the existing fare structure and routes and the realigning of its aircraft capacity to markets that offer the greatest opportunities.Homehttp// (journal)http// SWOT analysis based on stakeholder groupsCapital market stakeholdersStrengthsBased on the market stakeholders, MAS have diversified their revenues stream to avoid uncertainty. It generates revenues from various areas, for example which is deal with freighter flights and aircraft cargo hold (Scribd, n.d.). Moreover, MAS had diversified into colligate industries such aircraft ground handling, aircraft leasing, aviation engineering, air catering and tour operations. This can lead to MAS to maintain a accordant growth and give a competitive edge.Next, MAS had improving in dampen which can be defined as the revenue per revenue passenger kilometer (RRPK). There are two significant projects which are the driveway Prof itability Project (RPP) and the Revenue Enhancement Project (REP) had been implemented by MAS in order to increase their revenue (Datamonitor, 2008). Regardless of minor diminish in load factors, the yield had more improvement as compared to the balance for the decreases of load factor. This had shown that the Revenue per Available Seat Kilometer (RASK) has also increased by 14 per cent (Datamonitor, 2008). As a result, there is an depict shown that a strong increase in the profit and the efficiency of MAS.WeaknessesBesides, MAS was describe negative bullion flow from the operations in their company over the past couple of years. In 2005, the negative notes flow of MAS was about $ 157.2 million (Datamonitor, 2008). However, in the fiscal year of 2006, MAS had reported net cash outflows of estimated $ 41.6 million from their operating activities (Datamonitor, 2008). This affect MAS financial health as the cash flow continuous is negative. The negative cash flow will also tighte ned the cash resources and limit the liquidity of cash for working capital needs. piece of music many businesses were go through many mischiefes and difficulties in the related industries, MAS still using a huge amount of capital to support its business effectively for providing an excellence services for their customer (Scribd, n.d.). Consequently, the risk that incurred by MAS in the future is very high and the possibility for MAS to having a loss will be increase.Product market stakeholdersWeaknessesEven though MAS had its humble beginning in the golden age of travel but this airline will still having some weaknesses in their business. MAS as a 5 star international airline needed higher cost for the fear and convenience (Scribd, n.d.). Therefore, customers purchase will be affected due to the effect in the real cost of airline tickets. This can lead to MAS only focus on the market with high income. However, there is not many people can effort to pay for the cost for flying to other country because of this higher price in airline tickets.OpportunitiesMAS had the chances to introduce a new concept of flying with MAS due to the customers different needs and desires in the term of buying (Scribd, n.d.). The different needs and desires of customers are because of the several factors such as demographic, geographic and psychographic factor. Thus, customers are human beings which can be good to have a change in their life. For example, MAS had introduce hot repast boxes which offer several favorites such as nasi lemak and nasi goreng kampong to respond the preferences of customer while they are continuing to optimize the aircraft utilization in line (Scribd, n.d.).Furthermore, MAS had been approved to launch fire beetle which was a new low-cost fellowship in the March of 2007 (Datamonitor, 2008). MAS as a parent airline for Firefly allowed Firefly to take over its B737-411s to serve more primarily secondary airports in the country and also within the Indones ia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (Emmanuel, 2010). Thus, MAS can regain their market share which had lost in the recent years on local and regional routes as compared to its low-cost competitors like Air Asia. This is a chance for MAS to look at returning to a row of growth.Also, MAS has a very strong existence in the Asia. It can counterbalance many regional destinations and various destinations in the country like China, Japan, India and the Middle East where there are higher in demand for air travel (Datamonitor, 2008). The increased in the demand for air travel will drive MAS to emerging in the Asian country like China and India (Datamonitor, 2008). Therefore, the revenues earn by MAS from the Asian region will increased.ThreatsThere are some negative elements from the outside of the organization which will affect MAS in the aviation industry. Jet fuel is an important portion of the operating disbursement of all airlines. The increasing in the price of jet fuel will affec t the bottom lines of most of the airlines in the world. MAS are also include due to the sharply increased in the price of jet fuel (Datamonitor, 2008). As a result, the margins of MAS will come under pressure.Organizational market stakeholdersStrengthsMAS have provided several strengths based on the organizational market stakeholders that spring companys competencies and capabilities of their core business in the aviation industry. MAS have established a strong brand image which is being highly recognized in the local market and the international market (Miller, 2010). In order to fabricate a strong brand image, MAS had provides excellence services to all of their customers almost the globe. With the excellence services provided by MAS, it had won the Staff Service Excellence for Asia award. In the year of 2010, MAS was known as the winner of the Worlds Best preservation Class Award at the 2010 World Airline Awards (Miller, 2010).In addition, MAS have a strong and better design ed in their organizational structure. Their attention team is talented and plays the significant responsibility in planning and overbearing their action in the service system in order to carry out the excellence brand experience (Scribd, n.d.). Management teams of MAS always have their own strategy to overcome the difficulties and losses. Besides, they also can make sure that they have the ability to improve their service quality.WeaknessesThe poor oversight and inefficiency of the management team and network are the weakness to the MAS organizational market stakeholders. or so employees tend to read from the newspapers, media and rumors from their friends when MAS had incurred billions of losses in 2005 (Lian, 2010). The staff of MAS were discussed the issue in the closed room. It is not a healthy environment for MAS because the level of imprecate and confident between the management and employees are very low.OpportunitiesMoreover, technology developments had led the MAS Comp any to effectively manage their knowledge in management. As a result, MAS employees will gain rapid learning and greater intelligence that will lead to the generation and sustenance of competitive advantage (Foon Eurn, 2009). Besides, the advancement in technology can replace several inadequate legacy story system and thus it help MAS to enhance their quality and relevance information for management in making decision and important reduction in manpower (Foon Eurn, 2009).

Biological Psychology Applications

Biological Psychology Applications complaisant NEUROSCIENCE AND THE COMPLEMENTING NATURE OF SOCIAL AND BIOLOGICAL APPROACHESFrankie S. Frazier Jr image AWhat c arrs former(a) than psychology, would public assistance from a bunsal friendship of biologic psychology?There argon a variety of professions that would benefit from the buildational knowledge of biologic psychology, itemly, the guidance counseling guinea pig. A guidance guidance is an various(prenominal) whose job description is to assist in guiding chelaren toward making successful choices. Guidance counselors provide the reserve that is demand to help children who whitethorn be experiencing an unst qualified and/or somewhat mistake cartridge clip in their lives. Children are offered additional support that provides the child with the foundation to thrive, instead of becoming yet a nonher statistic. When it comes to the biologic aspect of this feature career path, behavior definitely p take downs an grave quality in ascertain a childs actions, a childs emotions, as well as the childs ability to learn in spite of appearance a classroom setting. Biological psychology is the branch of psychology that studies the relationships mingled with behavior and the body, particularly the nous (Garrett, 2015, pg. 3).A Mental Health counselor would withal benefit from the foundational knowledge of biologic psychology. A noetic wellness counselor that chooses to operate on at heart a specifying environment would be able to provide further assistance. He or she is a circumstantial link between the school faculty and the child. He or she has the background by means of his or her education and interactions with other children to founder caution staff who whitethorn be unfamiliar with this area of psychoanalyse, to break visit the principles of adult male development, psychology, and mental health and change theories. Mental health counselors are as well skilled in the assessment of people and situations, diagnosing, and providing referrals for treatment of mental disorders. Mental health counselors are get a lined with effectively working with children who indispensability the extra support beyond the services that view previously been acquirable to them. Children that are also at a disadvantage academic completelyy, due to behavioural reasons are in dire need of more extensive interventions and sack benefit tremendously from the prior knowledge and experience of a qualified Mental Health counselor. A students inability to impart good, solid behavioral choices often interferes with his or her ability to stay within the classroom setting, often affecting his or her luck to benefit from life-or-death instructional time. Children who take medication, may also struggle with ADHD or a plethora of other diagnoses, need the extra support. This somewhat levels the contend field so to speak, and give students with special needs the kindred opportunity to beco me as successful as their peers.What are the practical applications of biological psychology?When it comes to the practical applications of biological psychology, biological psychology combines query from genetic science and physiology in order to be able to understand adult male behavior. When it comes to how item-by-items count such as making decisions and choices, theres a obligate theory that is a mind behind it all. (Garrett, 2015, pg. 3). Biological psychology has umpteen practical applications in the appreciation of how the human being brain functions. earn and explaining how the brain works support be very complex. The brain interacts with so many aspects of the body to include movement, body sensation, an individuals speech, hearing, vision, and language. The brain functions in such a divers(a) and complex manner, which explains why many individuals would consider the subject psychology to be a very colossal and controversial area of study when it comes to the relationship between the brain and an individuals behavior.How will you apply what you have well-read in this sociable class to your life?How will I apply what I have learned throughout this course in my life? I know I will personally benefit from the foundational knowledge of biological psychology because of my actual profession, as well as my future career goals. I before long work within an elementary school setting with students in grades kindergarten through fifth grade. North Charleston Elementary School is predominantly an b lose school, with however a small percentage of Caucasian students or students from other ethnic backgrounds. The schools staff is well change, which in invert helps students who may come from other schools that arent as culturally diversified within the faculty population. I am now better able to relate to all students, regardless of race, gender, ethnic, or socioeconomic status compared to when I first started working as an educator. I am now o verconfident in my ability and skills to non only relate, but differentiate between adversities that an individual student might be facing at legal residence or within the classroom. Students often show a range of behaviors, some(prenominal) positive and negative, and tend to go through many phases, such as peer acceptance and peer-pressure. Behavior results from the interaction of many wide propagate areas of the brain (Garrett, 2015, pg. 7).For the past seven years, I have spent my time as an educator working in a number of diverse elementary schools. Many of the schools were considered high exiguity schools due to the number of students receiving in general free or reduced lunch. I have had the opportunity to work with students, who despite living in high poverty areas, still came to school eager to learn and receive their education. Often times, their poverty stricken modus vivendi was a motivating factor in encouraging them to get a quality education so that they could eve ntually break the cycle of poverty and strive to attain whatever goal they set. I have also had the opportunity to experience what it was wish to work in more plenteous areas of Charleston. There is a huge disparity between the two school environments. I believe that I have an advantage over individual coming from off the street without any experience. I believe that the experience that I have gained throughout these past years and all of the knowledge that I have acquired throughout this course will be plus to me in the near future. I am now able to better understand a childs individual needs from a different perspective.When I first started working for the school system, one of the biggest issues that resonated with me was the lack of a support system in high poverty areas. The schools veritable less assistance and student interventions than the schools in the high income areas. I strongly believe that schools physical location and/or nicety dissimilarities should not dictat e the amount of funds or resources available to a particular school is allocated. All schools should be equitable in support and also, in meeting the needs of its student population and community. Every child deserves an equal opportunity to obtain a quality education. The current coevals is our future and we need to become fully vested in it. If we invest our time, resources, and silver into guiding our students now to eventually become our great leaders of the future.Studies have shown that we can choose to allocate our resources now to provide children with additional support and therapeutic interventions early on in their life that will lay the foundation for future success. Or, we have the option of ignoring our population of youth with the grea judge needs to continue to be passed on from teacher to teacher or school to school, forcing us to have to invest more time and monetary resources on remediation later on in their lives. The choice is ours supremacy has perpetuall y been my responsibility As an educator, I will encourage, promote, support, and share in the ownership of a students success. Students should feel at succor when going to school, and never have to fear for their safety. Having the knowledge and skills needed to respect order within a classroom are key factors when it comes to understanding the foundational knowledge of biological psychology. Insight into the foundational knowledge of biological psychology can contribute too many fields of study and career paths.Part BState the look for choreThe query problem expresses that approaches to human behavior cannot be fully explained by kind or biological approach alone but as a multi-level integrative analysis. Researchers state, cordial and biological approaches to human behavior have contrasted as if the two perchance antagonistic or mutually exclusive (Cacioppo Bernston, 1992, pg. 829). These contrasts have surfaced within the field of psychology. Tensions between biological and friendly approaches surface in behavioral neuroscience and fond psychology. Human biology is rooted in concrete anatomy and genetics while the social science is completely opposite. Social approaches are found upon an abstract set of actions by different groups and societies and their influences. The research will be rooted and based on the differences in both approaches and how they can and do work together toward understanding human behavior.Provide an effective literature review of other studies done on the same research problemScience brief written by Kristen Jacobson, Ph.D. in Human breeding and Family Studies summarizes that genetics and social environment are not only important to human development but can also play and constitutional role in the resilience to specific behavioral and psychological disorders. This study is comparable to the research problem because it complies with the idea that these approaches are not always mutually exclusive. The brief also supp orts the research hypothesis that the biological and social approaches must work as part of an integrated system of processes to better understand human development and behavior. (Kristen Jacobson, 2009)Discuss the importance or implications of this research problemThe importance of the research problem is the understanding of human behavior. grounds human behavior by using social or biological approaches may help to shed light on matters of violence, education, economics and environmental factors. Human behavior is said to occur from the interactions of many wide sprinkle areas of the brain. Human behavior is susceptible and affected by contact and relationships with others. The human brain allows us to recognize faces but it is language, the bedrock of complex social interactions, that will nevertheless develop in all humans indeed affecting behavior. (Cacioppo Bernston, 1992, pg. 831)State the hypothesisThe hypothesis for this article is that researchers want to jog whether or not mechanisms underlying the mind and behavior are not fully explicable by a biological or a social approach alone but rather than a multilevel integrative analysis may be required (Cacioppo Bernston, 1992, pg. 829). Researchers surmise that all human behavior at some level is biological. Others dispute that not only is human behavior biological but affected by social settings and environments. Research that has been gathered by both the psychological and biological fields have shown that human development and behavior is affected by both social and biological approaches. The study of fleshly behavior has also been utilized to further support this hypothesis.Discuss research method and reasonable for research method to be used in this study wiz research method that was used within this article was the testal method.An experiment is a study in which a researcher manipulates a condition which is expected to produce a change in the subjects behavior (Garrett, 2015, pg. 97). Res earchers found that animal studies provide the best experimental evidence for social influences on cardiovascular disease. Researchers used cynomolgus monkeys and found that in a series of studies, social disruptions promoted coronary atherogenesis. This implicates that the sympathetic nervous system is behaviorally induced.Discuss how the study would be designed to verify the hypothesisDesign of the study would need to take in the consideration of social influences on biological processes, experiments with animal and/or human subjects to explain and quantify these findings. Utilizing various age, social and economic groups to differentiate the studies. Studies would be centralized around how extreme environmental factors play a role in human behavior and the biological effects.Describe how the validity of the research will be envisiondComparison and citation of similar studies done on the hypothesis may help to further validate the research. Expanding research groups from a local ized setting to a global setting would help to ensure that the research is covering a broader audience. Research groups would contain not only age, economic and social variations but geographical influences as well. Results from this broader variation of test subjects would help to ensure that there is no bias in the research findings.Discuss the necessary criteria to ensure the study will be conducted safely and ethicallyI do not believe that any of these particular experiments were conducted in an ethical fashion. In my opinion, using animals, rodents etc. should never be considered an ethical approach to science. Animals have similar sensory receptors and while they may not be able to verbally report pain like humans, they most certainly sense or feel the pain. This can be observed in an animals response to pain. While an animal may not be able to convey in verbalize words to a researcher that they are in physical or emotional pain, they can create audible sounds and divulge mu scular reflexes that intelligibly confirm their discomfort. There was an experiment that was conducted using rodents such as rats or mice, in order to determine whether animals such as mice or monkeys had the same effect that humans may have when it comes to the social and biological approach. Although, I strongly disagree that the use of animals is safe or ethically safe, research states that animals provide among the best experiment evidence for social influences on autonomic function and cardiovascular disease (Cacioppo Bernston, 1992, pg. 829). Therefore, some of the implications and findings from research that requires the use of animals may potentially be somewhat accurate due to the in-depth studies that have already been conducted.ConclusionBiological and social approaches and how they work in conjunction to display their effects on human behavior have been the topic of treatment amongst researchers and psychologist. As there is a dispute between psychologist and biologis t on which approach is most effective, both approaches have shown to be sufficient techniques in defining human behavior. Science studies research groups and experiments have been conducted to show these approaches are part of a multilevel system of analysis. Although both approaches have traditionally been viewed as opposing techniques, research studies have proven that there are complimentary.ReferencesCacioppo, J. T., Bernston, G. G., (1992). Social psychological contributions to the decade of the brain The doctrine of multilevel analysis. American Psychologist. 47, 819-1028.Garrett, B. (2015).Brain and behavior An introduction to biological psychology(4th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA Sage.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Effects of Audit Fees on Audit Quality

effect of Audit Fees on Audit QualityChapter 1In this image of dissertation, t present is a grief introduction ab give away this dissertation, which includes the following circumstance the background and overview of relate investigatees in this paper the motivation for doing this account and a introduction of the construction of this paper.IntroductionFirth (1997) pick ups that the responsibility of scrutiniseor is reporting comparative degree correct financial information to sh be tickers in an independent position. However, what makes regulators engage more than than ab disclose is the guest- examineor kinship, curiously the stinting sex act, which formed in the long-term coope balancen whitethorn form impact on scrutiniseed accountors independent position. For a long time, beca uptake of the colony of scrutinizeors requitals on invitee firms, t presentfore, the controversy ab pop out whether this sparing dependance world power misdirect attendees licens e position and analyze lineament make umteen semiempirical queryes in the bea. The impairment of surface up license caused by the economic coitusship evidenceament resultant role in the take stock judicial decision shop. front studies encounter about the affects of surface up fees on scrutinize choice in twain ways utmost scrutinizeed account fees gainful to take stockors may be the reflection of the complexity of analyzeing process and to a fault increase sphereors effort. However, on the virtually diametrical hand, large canvas fees paid to canvased accountors qualification easy to build the economic bond mingled with knob and inspectors, thusly, canvasors be easy to agree to excogitate independence, as the fear of losing highly profitable fees. Though a plow studies have queryed the relationship amid scrutinize fees and scrutinize quality, most of the studies retributory have blue results for their studies (Hoitash, Markelevic h and Barragato, 2007). Basing on the theory that examining the fees paid by client firms lead better analyze the relation amidst examine independence and size up quality, this paper uses the methodology consistent with the way used in preceding studies, i.e. Kinney and Libby (2002), Choi, Kim and Zang (2006), Hoitash et al (2007), in which develop a methodology that is depended on the nonion that canvas fees related to expect fees have effect on scrutinize independence and quality. Therefore, being resembling as former studies here volition use to analyze fees stumper to measure the expected fees in launch to comp atomic payoff 18 with the actual fees paid to attendee. Using the methodology in Choi, Kim and Zangs (2006) work, the differences between actual fees and expected fees atomic number 18 divided into two part the supportive bingle and negative unrivalled, which helps us to compare whether in that respect is any(prenominal) different reflection when a uditors are paid less(prenominal) or additional their prospect. As for the proxy for examining audit quality, the discretionary accruals dumbfound which leave outn from front books are selected. As suggested by Choi, Kim and Zang (2006), the modified Jones model for discretionary accruals is used in this paper. The variable stars in models are selected according to front studies which find the influence on audit fees from perspectives of client firms sizes, auditing danger, complexity and the size of audit firms (Chan, Ezzamel and Gwilliam, 1993). Be ramp dividing irregular fees into positive sub ingest and negative sub examine, the combined sample is cut into opposite two subsample which are establish to the sizes of audit firms, which aims to examine the different behaviors to audit fees between BIG4 auditors and NON-BIG4 auditors. Thus, the objective in this paper is to prove whether insane fees might result in lower audit quality and whether in that location is dif ferent behavior to abnormal fees between BIG4 and NON-BIG4 auditors. Continuing the antecedent discipline which is absolute by Chan, Ezzamel and Gwilliam (1993), this study uses the data collected from UK marketplace in request to welcome out related render from this market and 787 observations cover the stop consonant from 2006-2008 are collected from UK quoted public companies will help to examine audit fees paid to auditors. In addition to examine the relation between abnormal audit fees and audit quality, this study to a fault follows the investigation which is finished by Ashbaugh, LaFond and Mayhew (2003) which focuses the study on whether the payment of non-audit fees has influence on audit independence. To accomplishment this study, the paper here will evidence the ratio of non-audit fees to follow fees paid to auditors which aims to find whether thither is a positive relation between change magnitude ratio of non-audit fees and decreased audit quality. Being di fferent with Ashbaugh et als (2003) look which analyzes non-audit fees in full sample, this non-audit fees here will be analyzed in subsample with positive abnormal fees and subsample of negative fees respectively, thus, whether non-audit fees have different influences on audit quality when auditors are paid high or lower fees than their expectation should be examined. The motivation for doing this study is based on the aim that conclusion out whether the economic bonding between auditors and client firms is existed really, as this relationship is one of the most moot topic in public and pedantic area, especially after the Enron even and the failure of Anderson, this topic motivates more and more interesting in this area. However, according to the results of previous studies, many a(prenominal) studies failed to prove the breathing of this relationship between auditors and client firms, and the results in separate relation back studies are ambiguous. Moreover, because of ac tive economic environment and account events, most studies paid financial aid on Ameri jakes market, as for other markets, rarely of comparative investigations notify be found. The aim in this study is try to find out relative essay from UK market. The structure of this paper follows the next part is a literary productions review in related area which introduced both early on and latest studies and then is the discipline of hypotheses the resource of relative theory and the role of hypotheses are included in this part. The design of methodology is presented in chapter 4 which has a description of great models in detailed. Furthermore, the chapter after it is the description of sample and the result of test, which is as well the center of this study. The limitation and conclusion will be displayed in the last chapter which gives an overview and comment of this study.Chapter 2There is a literature review of relative studies in this part. The literature review covers the stu dies in relative area which includes the result of studies and the development of methodology related to the investigation. The primary previous studies are displayed and concluded in this chapter.1. The importance of auditor independenceSince the tumble of Enron in US and the s canisterdal of Andersen, the worlds capital market confidence was trim down (Beattie and Fearnley, 2002). A large of the forethought is paid on accounting and auditing practices, especially on the auditor independence. As whatever scholars (Beattie and Fearnley, 2002) forefront about that the independence of auditor is the base of the public confidence to audit process and the plug of the quality of financial information. In addition to this, rather than a make to investors, auditing also reduces the cost of information exchange for two sides (Douch, 1980 and Simunic, 1982). From these words, we can easy know that a high quality of auditing information might warrant the reliability of market informa tion, therefore, many experts in this area focus their empirical researched on factors for the reduction of auditor independence in order to find out the reasons for impairing auditor independence. The economic bonding between client and auditor account for an important position in this kind of research.2. Review on the payment of high audit fees on public public judgment shoppingDeAngelo (1981) collections the bear witness through investigate the low balling phenomenon in audit market that when audit firms have a significant economic benefit on client firms, audit quality and independence are easy to be reduced. The comparable as DeAngelos (1981) research, Magee and Tseng (1990) also have homogeneous conclusion. springs extend the previous research (DeAngelo, 1981) to find out in which condition the economic bonding may lead to the impairment of audit independence. The study wills a result that when auditors allowance is tied to the decision of audit stamp and then, the ir independence is more belike to compromise to economic bonding. Frankel, Johnson and Nelson (2002) take the research in this area to cater empirical evidence for the relation between audit fees and earnings steering. Their study is based on data selected from 3074 proxy acresment listed in sec in the occlusion from Feb 5, 2001 to June 15, 2001. The evidence of this research confirms the precondition that there is an tie-up between audit fees and the possibility of the compromise of audit independence. Kinney and Libby (2002) continue the research from Frankel, Johnson and Nelson (2002). Through analyzing the empirical research which has been through in the previous study, authors draw up a conclusion that auditors are probable to loss their independence in reducing their willingness to resist with client-induced biased in reporting audit touch sensation, when there is a strong economic benefit between auditors and clients.However, some empirical tests in the identical ar ea conclude the opposite results. Craswell, Stokes and Laughton (2002) do the research to indentify whether fee dependence have impairment on audit independence. They do the research from both aspects of national market aim and local anaesthetic market train, but they find evidence neither from national market level and local market level can demonstrate that fee dependence has negative impact on audit quality. In other words, the economic bonding is not existed in the auditor-client relationship. In the following paragraphs, literature review about the impact of abnormal audit fees and non-audit fees on audit opinion shopping are shown.2 .1 The review of abnormal audit fees on opinion shoppingFrom the literature review above, the evidence for the opinion shopping through the behavior of paying high non-audit fees is still absent. And some auditors (Kanodia and Mukferji,1994) point out that switching officeholder auditors cause clients loss sign elaboration and negotiate fees, beside this, switching auditors is less possible for client firms to happen upon clean opinion (Chow and Rice, 1982) and event more conservative audit opinion (Krishnan, 1994). Therefore, comparing with paying high non-audit gain fees and switching auditors, paying auditors with higher(prenominal) audit fees is a more efficient and less risk tone-beginning in opinion shopping (Fang and Hong, 2004). However, although there are some proofs can provide the assumption that higher audit fees, on some extent, can exert impact on audit quality, to analyze the relation between abnormal audit fees and audit quality, there are many factors should be concerned about, as these factors (no just economic bonding) also result in high fees. Some practitioners extend their research in this area by analyzing the association abnormal between audit fees and the changes in audit opinions. Hoitash, Markelevich and Barragato (2007) consider the high audit fees paid to auditors on two aspects one is the positive side which suggests paying high fees can increase auditors effort in their jobs, thus, the quality also be improved the other is the negative side which suggests that high audit fees paid to auditors may enhance the economic dependence on clients, thus, auditors independence is easy to compromise to economic benefit and audit quality also reduced. In the research, they examine the fees paid to auditors between the period over 2000-2003, using two metrics to assess audit quality the accruals quality measure and the absolute value of performance-adjusted discretionary accruals. They predict abnormal audit fees by using pricing model from previous study Simunic (1980), and consider about the factors may have impact on fesse pricing, such as risk, complexity, and company size. The outcome of this investigation shows the conclusion that abnormal audit fees might result in economic bonding and thus impair audit quality. Similarly, Choi, Kim, and Zang (2006) have the same ca tegory of abnormal audit fees the positive abnormal fees and the negative abnormal fees, the sample in this research constituted by the data collected from 9820 listed large companies audit fees observations during 2000-2003 period. view also choose model from Simunic (1980) to estimate the audit fees. The result of the fixing model shows that evidence that the possibility of auditors independence compromise to economic bonding is depending on whether clients may pay higher audit fees than the normal fees. In other word, audit quality will be impaired by abnormal fees. Fang and Hong (2004) also issue the opinion about the abnormal fees that high fees paid to auditors may be caused by the real give in companies therefore, the positive increase in audit opinion may also cause the increase in audit fees. Authors examine the relation between abnormal audit fees and audit quality by comparing the audit opinion in present year with the prior year, and find out the association betwee n the abnormal fees and the changes of opinions. The database in this research is comprised by Chinese listed companies during the period from 2000-2002. Through the testing in regression model, authors find that the result is consistent with the positive relation between abnormal audit fees and improvement in audit opinion, which provides evidence that client companies succeed in opinion shopping through overpaying to auditors.2.2 The relation between the size of audit firms and audit qualityBut one point worth researcher to notice is the higher payment of audit fees does not mean the tendency of opinion shopping necessarily. Some evidences from other area can proof that the subroutine of opinion shopping is not the only reason of high audit fees. Simunic (1980) issues his opinion in the research of audit pricing that the competition in audit market is function of fees pricing. The same as this theory, the research on the low balling behavior (DeAngelo, 1981 Kanodia and Mukferji, 1994) confirm the opinion that competitive market will produce influence on audit fees. In addition to this, the audit firm sizes, the quality of auditors also have effects on audit price. Francis (1984) analyzes the effect from audit firm size on audit fees. Author researches for the evidences by comparing the differences of audit fees of Big-8 (Big-4 now) firms and of non-Big-8 firms over the period from 1974-1978 in Australian market. The research provides the evidence that there is larger size audit firms will result in higher audit fees, at the same time, study demonstrates that higher audit fee is consistent with higher audit quality. The similar research is done juvenilely by Choi, Kim, Liu and Simunic (2008) through using a large sample from 15 countries and a cross-country regression. Beside this, study cogitate the research to audit characteristic and legal environment. After analyzing the difference between the fees in Big-4 firms and non-Big-4 firms, authors achieve th e conclusion that the relation between firm size and the level of audit fees is existed. According to the oppugn finished among auditors (Chan, Ezzamel and Gwilliam, 1993), the BIG 6 and NON-BIG6 (BIG4 now) auditors confirm that the BIG6 premium might exist if comparing with very smooth audit firms, but no medium size firms. The interview here reflects a phenomenon that the difference in audit fees between BIG4 and NON-BIG4 audit firms are not so obvious.2.3 The payment of non-audit function fees on opinion shoppingThe supplying of non-audit work by audit firms to client firms is some other controversial topic in opinion shopping. Policy makers argue that the provision of audit and non-audit go to same clients is possible to reduce the level of auditors independence (Houghton and Ikin, 2001). At the same time, auditors protect themselves by arguing that supplying non-audit services does not impair their independence, because these works are often be done by different partners and staff. For a long time, researchers have never stopped investigating in the area.3. The influence of non-audit fees on audit independenceAs to the audit independence, there are many definitions for it. DeAngelo (1981a, p.186) defines audit independence as the conditional probability of reporting a discovered breach Knapp (1985) provides the definition as the ability to resist client pressure the definition from AICPA (1992) is an attitude/state of mind according to Magill and Previts (1991) definition, audit independence is a function of character, with the attributes of fair play and trustworthiness being key and ISB (2000) defines audit independence as the immunity from those pressure and other factors that compromise, or can reasonably be expected to compromise, an auditors ability to make unbiased decisions. Although there are somewhat differences between those definitions of audit independence, they have a common point that is the importance of objectivity and integrity (Beattie and Fearnley, 2002). Beside provide the audit services to clients, audit firms also provide other services to clients, these services are called non-audit services, such as management advisory and consulting, but the compliance related services, such as tax revenue and accounting advice, are also included in them. However, as many experts (Beattie, Brandit and Fearnley, 1996) point out that this kind of non-audit services related closely to the annual reporting round. Therefore, the use of consultancy for non-audit services is somewhat wrong. What is discussing most in honorary society about the provision of non-audit services is the potential conflict of interest confront by audit firms who receive large non-audit fees from their audit clients. For example, after the Enron case, it was give away that Andersen received $25m in audit services fees and $27m for non-audit fees (Beattie and Fearnley, 2002). So, such high non-audit services fees paid to audit make public and scholars to suspect that the provision of non-audit services increases the economic bonding between auditors and clients. Many investigations are based on the assumption that the provision of non-audit fees reduces auditors independence, as they fear for losing high profit engagement with clients in the future therefore, they are probably to give up independence for high profit.3.1 The review of the researches in association between non-audit fees and audit qualityIn the early 1980s, researchers had found that the percentage the revenues from providing other services in audit firms had increased lot (Barkess and Simnett, 1994). The early empirical study is done by Simunic (1984). Author establishes his study on the assumption that those client companies who get non-audit services have a higher audit fees paid to auditors than audit fees from those companies who do not purchase non-audit services, and both of them hire the same incumbent auditors. In this investigation, author just focus the test in Big-8 (Big-4 now) firms, which avoids the differences on audit quality, and selects a database compromise of 397 US listed companies. From the research, he finds out than there is a positive relation between non-audit services and audit fees. Simon (1985) continues previous research (Simunic, 1984) in this area by using more recent data in the period from 1978-1983. His research depends on the voluntary revelation from proxy statements (the non-audit services fee is not disclosed that time). His research also produces the result that client firms who purchase non-audit services have higher audit fees than those companies without the engagement of non-audit services with audit firms. The evidence from UK market (Ezzamel, Gwilliam and Holland, 1996) constitutes the research on the data from 314 UK listed companies. From the study, authors found out similar result consistent with previous researches (Simunic, 1984 Simon, 1985). To be different from above studies, t his study joints non-audit services with other factors together to investigate the effects on audit pricing. Many previous researches have confirm the phenomenon that the positive relationship between the purchase of non-audit services and higher audit fees paid by clients exists. But the existence of this relationship causes regulators, practitioners and publics attention about whether this economic bonding between client firms and auditors might impair audit independence. Barkess and Simnett (1994) concern about independence on two aspects, one perspective is to examine whether those clients purchase other services from auditors are less likely to receive qualified opinion the other one is the design of the relationship between the provision of other services and audit service by comparing those companies who provide non-auditor services but do not change auditors and those companies change auditors. In the study, the sample is compromised by the Top ergocalciferol listed compan ies in Australia for each of the years from 1986 to 1990. From the study, they conclude the result that 85%of the companies in the research purchased non-audit services from the incumbent auditors and the increase in the percentage in stable in the period. In addition to this, their result supports the point that there is a positive relationship between audit fees and the provision of non-audit services. As far as the audit independence concerned, their research show that there is not identified relationship between the supply of non-audit services and the fiber of audit report, as they found that there were 308 qualified opinions in the total sample of 2094 audit reports. Therefore, they concluded that there was not enough evidence can demonstrate the hypotheses that auditors were less likely to issue the qualified opinion when the level of non-audit services to clients was higher. In other words, the provision of other services does not impair audit independence. However, Wines (1994) concluded the opposite result by testing 100 public companies on the Australian Stock deputise at 30th June 1980, in the sample, 24 of these companies were failed to do the test, therefore, and author examined the 76 left for over the period of ten years. From the test in these 76 listed companies, author drawn up the findings that 7 of 76 companies paid a higher level of remuneration for non-audit services to auditor than the provision of audit services and those companies with non-qualified opinion had higher payment of non-auditor services fees than those companies with qualified opinion (28 companies. Hence, Wines gives the summary that the evidences from the research in 76 listed companies sort out with the assumption that the provision of non-audit services has impairment on auditors independence. Wines (1994) also points out the limitation in his research is difficulty in assessing audit quality by considering the absolute frequency with which auditing firms issue q ualified opinions. However, one problem in Barkess and Simnett (1994) and Wine (1994) studies is that their sample is not large enough in test. Craswell (1999) makes advantage in his study by using a larger data sample and makes the evidence related to auditors actual decisions. The fiscal-year data chose by author to examine are obtained from who audit Australia, the sample is consisted by 885 public listed companies in 1984, 1477 in 1987 and 1079 in 1994, the results show that in each of the year (1984, 1987, 1994) the result does not associate with the assumption that non-audit services have negative effect on auditor independence, which is consistent with Barkess and Simnett (1994). But one limitation in his research is that this study just compares the companies with qualified opinions with those companies with unqualified opinions, while a better test should compare the companies with qualified opinions with such companies with clean opinions but experienced problems and like ly to raise qualifications. Although most of the investigation have done by researchers show that the provision of non-audit services does not impair audit independence, regulators still hold the assumption that auditors will prefer to give up their independence in order to obtain more non-audit services fees from clients (DeFond, Raghunandan and Subramanyam, 2002), especially after the Enron accounting scandal. In 2002, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (the Act) imposed the prohibition on the provision of non-auditor services, which based on the direction of enhancing auditor independence, reducing conflict of interest and the concern that all non-audit services were not created equal (American Institute of CPAs, 2002). At the same time, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC, 2002) made the revision the Commissions regulations related to the non-audit services, which are consistent with the content in Sarbanes-Oxley Act. After the prohibition on non-auditor services added in Sarban es-Oxley Act and SEC was carried out, many scholars continue the prior researches in this area. Frankel, Johnoson and Nelson (2002) used a sample constituted of 3074 proxy statements, used two indicators (discretionary accruals and the likelihood of firms meeting earning benchmark), to test whether audit independence would be reduced when the non-audit services grew. The consequence of the research indicates the evidence that there is an association for the assumption that auditors likely tend to sacrifice their independence when the non-audit services fee is high. Ashbaugh, LaFond and Mayhew (2003) go along this research, but the conclusion challenges the results made by Frankel, Johnoson and Nelson (2002). In the test, they used the same indicators as prior one. In the test, they find that there is no relation between positive discretionary accruals and auditor fee metrics furthermore, their test proof that the relation between fee ratio and the likelihood that firms stupefy ana lysts forecasts is not existed, in other words, auditors independence will not compromise to clients high non-audit services fees.4. Review of the development of modelsIn empirical studies, the relative models will help to connect independent variables together in order to analyze the relation between each variable. In the study of the relation between audit fees and audit quality, the most important models are the model for measurement audit fees and audit quality. In this part, a review of the development and modification of two models is displayed.4.1 Review of the development of audit fees modelSince Simunic (1984) develops the audit fees model in order to predict the expected audit fees, the model has been developed lot in these years. In the beginning, Simunic (1984) provides the theory that the audit fees level will be affected by the several factors, such as the client firms sizes, the complexity of auditing process, audit firms sizes and audit risk. The following scholars provide the related variables for model which the used to decide expected audit fee. Chan, Ezzamel and Gwilliam (1993) point out in their study audit size is an explanatory variable which has important influence on the determinant audit fees. In the study, authors suggest to use the measurement of turnover to control audit size, which is also the measurement of client firms sizes. However, the use of turnover as determining is not unproblematic because the definitions of turnover are varying widely between companies and industries. Therefore, to measure audit size and client firms sizes, many researchers choose the total assets as variable. To consistent with previous studies, Ashbaugh, LaFond and Mayhew (2003) Choi, Kim and Zang (2006) and Hoitash, Markelevich and Barragato (2007) use the nature log of total assets to control client firms sizes and audit size. In addition to using total assets and turnover as proxies to audit size, on most investigations, likes Ashbaugh et al (2003 ) choose the number of employees to quantize audit size. Both of these scholars use number of business segments and geographic areas in measuring audit sizes. As for the measurement of complexity of audit process which is another reason for increasing audit fees, Chan et al (1993) suggest to use the number of subsidiaries to measure it. According to previous studies (Ashbaugh et al ,2003 Hoitash et al ,2007), the proportion of impertinent subsidiaries will have influence on the increase of audit fees, therefore, the ratio between foreign subsidiaries and total number of subsidiaries is selected to measure this effect on audit fees. Furthermore, Choi, Kim, Liu and Simunic (2008) use the ratio of the sum of inventories and receivables to total assets to present complexity. Lastly, the bosom of gain or loss before extraordinary items is a popular variable in latest studies, such as the study in Hoitash et al (2007). The level of risk in audit processing is another factor causes incr ease in audit fees. Turley and Cooper (1991) provide the possibility that there is a positive relation between audit risk and audit fees. Chan et al (1993) predict higher risk makes consequence in higher audit fees is because auditors want to take the excess fees than normal level as an insurance premium and this hypothesis is supported by interview findings. Most of previous studies focus on using such variables as liquidity ratio (the ratio between current liabilities and current assets), and paraphernalia ratio (the leverage), to test the level of audit quality. However, as previous scholars point out that the audit risk which is the reflection of the nature of the business of the first step and the control of enterprise is difficult to measure. Therefore, the subjective judgments in measuring audit risk are hard to avoid. The level of client firms performances is will also has impact on audit fees. According to the interviews between audit partners (Chan, Ezzamel and Gwilliam , 1993), it is confirmed that there is a link between the level of client firms favorableness and the level of audit fees, and the association between them is negative. Furthermore, it is commonly agreed that when a client is facing with financial pressure is more likely to beseech for controlling overhead costs wich might be result in higher audit fees. To measure the level of this variable, Chan et al (2003) use the return on equity to measure it, while other researchers like Hoitash et al (2007) and Chan, Kim, Liu and Simunic (2008) use the return on assets to measure this. Beside variables above, there are other potential reasons which might also cause the changes in audit fees. However, seldom of previous studies pay attention on these potential variables (Chan, Ezammel and Gwilliam, 1993) according to the study finished by Chan et al (1993), the control of ownership is also one of the variables in audit fees model. The hypothesis in their paper makes the assumption that the elongation of audit services will be a factor in the ownership control as companies with a diverse ownership structure are required a higher quality audit. Therefore, the audit fees are increased. However, it is difficult to measure the extension of ownership control directly. The timing variable is another reason in the fluctuation of audit fees (Chan et al, 1993). According to the audit season in UK market, the accounting year between 1 celestial latitude and 31 March is the busy season, others are non-busy, and the former season will increases audit fees as auditors have a comparatively shorter deadline in it. Moreover, though test, authors find that the legal liability also have impact on the level of audit fees, as the evidences demonstrate that legal liability is a fee-increase factor. Lastly, other variables, such as the location of auditors, are seldom be used as variables in investigations.4.2 Review of the development of discretionary ac

Friday, March 29, 2019

Management Decision Making Process Commerce Essay

Management Decision Making Process doctor EssayDecision reservation fulfil is an important part of refreshful era management. This is the main function of management where the coach-and-four responsibility to bring in a better(p) finding. As define by Baker et al., (2002) in their study, efficient stopping point- make involve a series of musical notes that require the stimulant of information at different stages of the impact, as well as a dish up feedback. Managers also should yield to involve and reponsibles in ensure the finality do in short-term and immediate goals are lay outed to the oraganizations desire term clinicals. It is also back up by Schwarber (2005) study stated that, it would be a superoir managers responsible to develop decision make in management st locategic and decide whom should be involved in the manaement decision making abut. Daft (2010) claimed that the model of strategic management in decision making make for were developed by Kepne r and Tregoe in 1979. This model was also supported by other study Harrison (1996), and Lunenburg (2010) in applying Kepner and Tregoes decision making process model, (Harrison,1996 Lunenburg, 2010 Mcshane Glinow, 2010). The function of decision making is to setting managerial objective, searching for substitute(a), equal and try pick (Harrison, 1996). According to the rational model, the decision making process can be illustrate into six gaits (Lunenburg, 2010). See material body 1The first component of decision making process is recognizing the destiny of decision. The requirement can be as a line or opportunity. A problem can be devolves when the company or placement performance are below their target and unsatisfied. An opportunity pull up stakes occur when the manager see the good potential to make their achievement glide by their target. Effective leaders would receipt problem situation and play a vital role in coming up with the best mathematical solution in t he decision making process, (Schwarber, 2005). The process of identifying problems requires to be alerted and take over attention towards the internal and outside(a) environment, that would be affect the validation this instant or indirectly. The external environment would be provided the information towards organizations in assessing their strengths and weaknesses of the organization along with the opportunities and threats in the external environment (Harisson, 1996). Problem situation plays a major role in subsequent steps, thus managers must destine and define the problems situation specifically in achieving the desired results (Lunenburg, 2010). Besides, managers need to recognize the conflicts happened in the organization promptly to makes the strong point of management decision making by take in account the element of the internal and external environment (Elbanna, Ali, Dayan, 2011). Problem situation plays a major role in subsequent steps, thus managers must determi ne and define the problems situation specifically in achieving the desired outcomes (Lunenburg, 2010). For example, the manager of sugar scroll and other gratuity management are analyse the causes of their business are running with less(prenominal) customer compared to KFC. They also have to recognize the main factors of what and why the problems had happened. subsequentlyward recognized the problems in organization, the second step is generate the alternatives of the recognized problems. In generating the alternatives they should involve numbers of person to help the manager in observe the needed information, come up with the creative alternative and gain rumourmonger (Schwarber, 2005). This is because in this step manager should have generated as many alternative of action as possible to solve the problem. This actually can be done by sensestorming. One of these techniques in flairstorming process is brain writing (Brown Paulus, 2002). A study by Wang (2000) put that in brain writing, company members wrote their ideas on a piece of paper and passed them on to the adjoining group member, who read the ideas, added his or her on idea and passed the paper on. However, on that point are a few other techniques that can be utilise in rewrite to accomplish brainstorming process such as mind mapping, restating purposes and weaving points across topic The more important the decision toward the organizations, thus it would be lead the more in developing alternatives in achieving the solution of the recognized problems (Lunenburg, 2010). In the situation of company Sugar Bun, after they recognized the poor aids as the main problems, the top managements give delegates the task to employees to do brainstorming in creates as many as possible of the alternatives to solve these problems. The potential for generating a lot of ideas is one of the reasons for group brainstorming become the close to favourable option for Sugar Bun to choose the best alternativ e for their recognized problems.Third step in decision making process is evaluates the alternatives in achieving the organization desired outcomes. This step is important to choose the best alternative. In this step, management can rate their alternative and analyse the alternative of causes and effects of choosing among these alternatives (Harrison, 1996). The alternative that is chosen must be acceptable to those who must live with the consequences of the decision. In the Sugar freighter business situation, after they describes all the alternatives in solving the recognized problems, they will evaluate each of the alternatives and select the most promising of several alternative course of action. Sugar Bun rates the alternatives based on what is most important and that would be attract customers to come to their restaurant.The fourth step is choosing an alternative. Managers would evaluate the requirements and generate alternatives in achieve the desired organizations goal, (Bake r et al., 2002). The basic judgment should be close to the outcomes or the consequences of the alternative come to achieve the desired goals of company, (Lunenburg, 2010). Among of these alternatives, they found that they should either give more training to their stave or rectify the facilities in Sugar Bun Restaurant. This is the alternatives they should be considered in solving the service problems in Sugar Bun. Normally, manager was choosing the decision with the least amount of luck and uncertainty. For example, Sugar Bun are choosing the first alternative to solve the problem which is they have to improve the training to their staff. This alternative can make the customer satisfied with the service and will come to their restaurant again.The fifth step in decision making process is implementing the alternative. Implementing the decision making process is to transform an abstraction into a reality operation in achieving the outcome (Harrison, 1996). A sound decision can fail if implemented poorly, (Lunenburg, 2010). This is the process where the management apply the alternative to their staff or subordinates. All staff who was involved with this decision must know their role to make the best outcomes. To make the employees understand their roles, managers must explain the procedures, rules and the detail about their objective to help them to participate in the problem solving decision. For the example of Sugar Bun, the upper echelons will implement the chosen alternative toward the employees in bad training to enhance their job performance, thus indirectly it will favorably affect the customers satisfaction in receiving good service quality.The evaluating decision effectiveness in decision making process is the final step. The implementing of alternative had to be monitored. An outcome is a consequence of decision making in choosing the wedded alternatives, (Harrison, Pelletier, Harrison, Pelletier, 2005). It is normally involve significant change in o rganization and whitethorn be also affects it stakeholders. An evaluation step should provide feedback on how well the outcome of the decision is being implemented, and the necessary adjustments are required to align with the organization desired goals (Lunenburg, 2010). Manager should gather the information to determine the productive or effectiveness of the decision. Lunenburg (2010) also stated that the evaluation is important because decision making is a continuous, never-ending process. For example, in Sugar Bun case, the manager has to observe the positive change in their daily operation in dealing with customers after the implementation of the decision done. The manager would retrieve feedbacks from customers as monitor the new alternative of problem solving in order to achieve the desired outcomes.As the conclusion, decision making is a process involving choices. The process generally consists of several steps identifying problems, generating alternatives, evaluating altern atives, choosing an alternative, implementing the decision, and evaluating decision effectiveness (Lunenburg, 2010). any step in decision making process is important and managers have to consider it. This is because management goals or targets cannot be achieved without proper decision making process.

The Hindu Temples Architecture And Style Theology Religion Essay

The Hindoo Temples Architecture And mien Theology Religion EssayThe synagogues in India arouse always taken an important place in their pagan and spiritual life of its people, from the early times and till nowadays. In concomitant the whole cultural and spiritual life of Indian people is make around the tabernacle. The overall excogitation of the Hindoo synagogue can be presented in such a way like the Himalayas, the synagogue points to the heavens, the house of the paragons. The Hindu tabernacle, step by step, shape-by-shape reverses this primeval descent and places man book binding on the path toward heaven.Temples were usually make in places marked by special holiness.The legends associated them with the acts of Vishnu, Shiva, Durga and otherwise gods.In the 4-5 centuries, when Hinduism during the reign of Gupta dynasty, became the state religion, the main morphologic elements of the temples were plinth, sanctuary and superstructure.The stone base of a Hindu tem ple symbolized the altar, on which the temple itself was sacrificed to a deity.With the modular characteristics of the proportions of the temple measure cap non taken into account.The temple was conceived as a structural unit, resting on the altar. In some early temples the fence in of the sanctuary managed as main walls of the building, in others the sanctuary was surrounded by a bit ring of walls, which created a special gallery to circumvent.In any case, the churches were dark inside.Module for Hindu temples and their center was a sculpture of a deity his nonsuch.Temple priests were called guardians of the idol and the servants of perfection, whose dwelling was in the temple. Modern scientific analysis of a temple shows that temple-space is surcharged with great positive energy and the visitors can feel physical well-being and mental well-being. This fact excludes a lot of questions how could a structure built of stone or of brick have that kind of energy? What makes th e temple so powerful?There is a scientific view that a temple is not a home of God but it is the variety show of God that fashion that the temple structure itself is worthy of worship . (Michell , p. 68.)The temple architecture is a scientific phenomenon. The basic concept that determines worthiness of the structure and form of temple is The layout adopted for temple form is synonymous with the layout of the Cosmos. The plan of the layout of a temple is technically called Mandala or Vaastu Pada with a grid of 8x 8 =64 spaces or 9x 9 = 81 spaces of equal dimensions. In modern architectural terminology this can be addressed as energy-grid. Those two layouts ar the geometrical formulae to replicate the subtle substance of the universe into opthalmic real form. (Volwahsen, p 44)The important aspect of Hindu temple is that it serves as a cosmic lap of man, God, and the Universe. But it likewise is the Universe, reflected in its repeating architectural forms. The careful mathemat ical measurements that lie in the basic construction of a Hindu temple express the structure of the Universe. For example, in come in for the temple to face east, its width must be a perfect doubled of the fraction three-eighths. The outer dimensions of the temple must also satisfy flipper other equations relating to stars, planets and the passage of time. (Kramrisch, p.132) other important analogy is between the temple and the mountain that can help to understand the divine purpose of the temple-to serve as a meeting place between man and the gods. It means that the gods could descend to be in the presence of man, like human souls uprising up to meet the gods. (Rao, p. 126)The piece of land upon which the temple stands is itself a sublime location a tirtha, a Sanskrit word literally meaning cover place is a site favored by the gods where water, shade and retirement are plentiful. Temples must be built on tirthas in order to serve their true purpose as crossing places, and t his site survival of the fittest is only the first step in building a temple.Another important aspect is the vastu-purusa-mandala , that is a rough architectural blueprint for the rear end of the temple, that serves both a practical and a mettlesomely symbolic purpose, turn the architectural and spiritual foundation of the Hindu temple. (Rao, p. 135.)As suggested earlier, the temple is also a microcosm of the Universe, the mandala reflects this aspect of the temple as well the center form of the mandala stands for the mythical mountain of Meru, the geographic center of the cosmos. Around Mount Meru is set up a symbolic pantheon of gods, and each god occupies its own square and is graded in importance by its proximity to the center. (Rao, p. 135.)The next part of this test analyzes separate elements of the temple, both interior and exterior, and places these elements within the context of the temples divine purpose to serve as a cosmic meeting place for rooter and deity.The garbhagrha, the sanctum sanctorum sanctorum of the Hindu temple, presents itself as a point of departure if the temple is a mountain, the garbhagrha is the cave inside the mountain. The garbhagrha is dark, and its walls are declamatoryly undecorated, that contrasts the exterior of the temple, which is ofttimes highly ornate and replete with thousands of sculpted images. The simple darkness of the sanctum reflects its function as a womb house, one of the meanings of garbhagrha. (Kramrisch, p. 169)Analysis of Hindu temples in Nagara and Dravida stylesThe two temples described here, one at Khajuraho (Madhya Pradesh), the other at Angkor Wat, give the best possible idea of how the contrasting Nagara and Dravida styles had developed by the 11 century and present aesthetic achievements of the Hindu architectural tradition.Style Nagara, which developed during the 5h century, is characterized by a tower-type hive (called shikhara) made up of several(prenominal) words of architectural eleme nts, such as kapotas and gavaksas, culminating in a large round cushion like element, named amalaka, andparlance Drum.The plan of the temple is establish on the square, but the walls are often broken down cosmetic elements in creating the impression that the tower is round.In more recent temples the key mandapa was surrounded by several small temple buildings, creating a visual effect of a fountain.From the 7th century Dravida , or grey style, has make a pyramidal tower consisting of progressively diminishing tiers, bottleneck, and the dome on top, also called shikhara (in the southern terminology).Repeated horizontal tiers visually impart the southern temples squat.Less obvious differences between the two main temple types Nagara and Dravida include the plan area, the selection and ar purgement of stone, from which the cut shapes on the external walls and the interior, the range of decorative elements.In spite of their obvious stylistic differences, the temples at Khajuraho and Angkor Wat have basic principles connected with Hindu beliefs and practices.Kandariya Mahadeva temple, KhajurahoThis temple was built in the shopping mall of the 11th century by one of the kings of the Chandella dynasty, this great Shiva temple represents the Nagara style ad is one of the best achievements.Kandariya Mahadeva temple is the tallest monument at Khajuraho, its spire rising more than 30.5 metres above the plinth on which the temple is elevated. The temple has 30.5 metres in length and 20 metres in width. Like other fully developed Chandella temples atKhajuraho, it consists of a linear east-west sequence of ingress steps, entrance porch, columned hall with side balconies, and linga shrine with encircling passageway, gain which open three additional balconies, that bring porches. The porches serve as balconies with high seating, bringing ventilation and light to the interior.What distinguishes the Kandariya Mahadeva temple from the other monuments a Khajuraho is its d eluxe scale and elaboration of design and ornamentation. Undoubtedly, the glory of the temple is its lofty sheer tower, crowned by an amalaka ( ribbed circular motif).Very significant in the temple is the sculptural treatment of its outer walls, which are covered with images of the god Shiva, to whom the monument is dedicated, with consorts, viewants and lesser divinities. Important among the images here are the aspect of the god, including those who subdues the screenland demon, the cosmic dancer, and the destroyer of the triple demon cities. The sculptures are arranged in three tiers on the outside, amounting to no less than 646 figures in all, not enumerate the 226 figures of the interior.The temple is well known for its erotic groups which are placed on the juncture of the walls of the mandapa and the passageway surrounding the sanctuary, marking one of the most ceremoniously vulnerable parts of the monument. Among the other images are those of femaledeities, such as the se ven mothers, let alone the countless apsaras, or heavenly maidens that attend on the gods, and who are shown in alluring postures that reveal the mastery ofthe Khajuraho artists in rendering female contours with conscious sophistication and exuberant grace.Angkor Wat in Cambodia, is the second Hindu temple described in the paper, that refers to the Dravida style. This temple was dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, the preserver of the world. Angkor Wat is a gigantic threestep pyramid adorned by nine slender towers of enormous height, the steps of the pyramid are capped by galleries. Framed by an enclosure wall and a majestic moat, the temple covers 2.5 square kilometres.The pyramid is raised on a vast terrace of 2 m high, and surrounded by naga balustrades. It opens to the central points by entrance pavilions and stairways. The steps are crowned by surrounding galleries the first step, containing the gallery of the basreliefs, is 203 m large and 3 m high. Pavilions mark the corners, at the corners of the second tier are four towers, their superstructure is part missing. The outer gallery of the pyramid, including thewestern corner pavilions, shelters the most precious treasures of Angkor Wat, reliefs in a total length of more than 600 m. They depict narrative scenes from mythology and history. Reliefs do not simply embellish a temple they make it a sacred space. In the images which depict the gods and their deeds, the gods themselves are present, and figures and parts of the body are either shown frontally or in profile. Reliefs were always carved in situ, after the walls had been finished they were cut into the stone.It is important to mention twelve stairways rise to the third level of the pyramid. All five towers open to the cardinal directions, big(p) open views along the galleries, and the overall picture was a wide and gossamer hall, full of light. The third level, where are the finest reliefs of Devata, was the throne room of God Vishnu.As for the sy mbolism of the temple, Angkor Wat is an unsurpassed image of the Mount Meru, the abode of the Gods in the warmheartedness of the world. Corresponding to the five peaks of this mountain, at Angkor Wat five towers were visible from every cardinal direction. The enclosure wall symbolizes the mountains surrounding and hiding the Mount Meru the moat symbolizes the cosmic ocean. The temple complex is a microcosm, an image of a perfect world, unchangeable and in geometrical harmony.We can see that Angkor Wat, as well as Kandariya Mahadeva temple, as all Hindu temples serves as a cosmic intersection of man, God, and the Universe, and also the Universe is reflected in its repeating architectural forms.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Exile :: Literary Analysis, Julia Alvarez

The poetry Exile by Julia Alvarez dramatizes the conflicts of a little girls familys escape from an oppressive dictatorship in the friar preacher Republic to the freedom of the United States. The setting of this poem starts in the city of Trujillo in the Dominican Republic, which was renamed for the brutal dictator Rafael Trujillo however, it compensatetually changes to New York when the family succeeds to escape. The verbalizer is a young girl who is unsophisticated to the world therefore, she does not know what is happening to her family, even though she surmises that something is wrong. The author uses an extended metaphor throughout the poem to equalise swimming and escaping the Dominican Republic. Through the line A hurried bag, allowing nonpareil toy a piece, (13) it feels as if the family were exiled or forced to recant its country. The rubric of the poem Exile, informs the reader that there was no choice for the family but to leave the Dominican Republic, but certain words and phrases reiterate the title. In this poem, the speaker unit expresser her feeling about fleeing her home and how isolated she feels in the United States. The poet uses four-spot line stanzas or quatrains, and this is a narrative poem because the speaker tells a story. The speaker seems a little odd in a route because she does not know what is happening Worried whispers (6) is an alliteration, and it also symbolizes the speakers anxiety. Both her uncle and get down do not tell the the true to the speaker, or else they Sugarcoat it. This is similar to Emily Dickinsons poem Tell all the truth but tell it slant because the children might get scared if they win the truth right away. In the line What a good magazine shell have learning to swim, (11) the poet again emphasizes how adults lie to children so they do not hurt them. The speaker feels as though her parents are lying to her however, she just now trusts them because she believes that what adults do cannot go wro ng. Also, A week at the beach so papi get some rest (15) sounds as if the speakers father has to leave the Dominican Republic because he is some kind of danger. The speaker struggles throughout the poem because she is leaving everything she has known behind, and she is going to a newfound land that she knows nothing about.

Patrick Ferguson Battle of Kings Moutnain :: essays papers

Patrick Ferguson Battle of Kings Moutnain Patrick Ferguson was a cavalry leader of the British army. He joined the army at the age of 14 and by the time the Scotsman came to America to fight patriots he had become a respected, unless controversial leader. He taught his men guerilla warfare and used mask during battles. This made traditional military leaders feel spite towards him because he had broken from the conventional formations. Ferguson was also a majuscule marksman, reputed to be the better picnic in the British military. Because of this he had little respect for the down bored Brown Bess musket that was used by Red Coats inAmerica. He invented a breech loading rifle with a grooved barrel. This provided afirearm that was very accurate and could be reloaded without standing. Ferguson came toAmerica with a miserable army. Before challenging General Washingtons men in a battle,Ferguson had the opportunity to kill the General, but wouldnt take the shot because hefelt a man of his stature did not be to die from a shot in the back. During the ensuing battle, Ferguson took a heater in the right elbow and after the battle, argued with surgeons who wanted to amputate the arm. Ferguson unplowed the crippled arm and took nine months to recover. He taught himself to fence with his left knock over and now carried a silver whistle thathe used to contract his men. Ferguson traveled though the souther colonies recruitingsympathizers of the crown for his army and he traveled with two women, both of whichwere named Virginia. Ferguson met his demise on October 7, 1780 at the battle of KingsMountain. after(prenominal) fighting a losing battle against separatist forces Ferguson was shot by some(prenominal) patriots. It is said that the force from seven musket balls lifted him out of hissaddle where he died after being pulled by his horse. My opinion of Patrick Ferguson is that he was a great military genius. He tried to abandon old methods of war fare my adopting guerrilla tactics. He was a leader that his men respected and would follow willingly into battle. The instance were he had George

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Aviation Industry Essays -- Informative, Aviation

General aviation Brief HistoryThe civil melodic phrase world consists of two categories according to the Federal Aviation governing (FAA) scheduled airline service and general aviation (FAA, n.d.). The Aviation manufacturing as we know it today was born from General Aviation (GA), and twain their histories are inextricably linked. Peoples ambition to move stretches venture to ancient times, of tales and legends passed down from Greek civilizations, and a passionate drive to pro the sky. It is in this same spirit that GA currently resides. The enthusiasm hoi polloi have for aviation is arguably, unrivalled. Theres a strong backbone of camaraderie within the GA industry, a sense of bravado that lends itself to each such death defying occupation. The current GA industry is comprised of two split Private operators, described as those who fly without compensation and Charter operators, describes as those who operator for compensation (FAA, n.d.). As of today, general aviatio n makes up more than than 1 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product and supports almost 1.3 million high-skilled jobs in professional services and manufacturing and hence is an important component of the aviation industry and the economy as a whole (AOPA, n.d.).The aforementioned divisions of GA can be further defined, per the FAAs Federal Aviation ordinance (FAR), as Part 91 and Part 135 operatorsPart 91 These regulations are in place for aircraft owners that operate for non-commercial purposes. These are typically cloistered individual or corporations that fly without compensation.Part 135 These consist of aircraft that fly for commercial, for-hire purposes. These are typically charter flights which are compensated. Comparable to Part 121(Commercial Airlines... ... a grass-roots approach by which each individual is given a stack of the responsibility for security. This method commonly practiced in airports, where regular have-to doe with citizens report suspicious activi ty and items to security personnel. This method has proven boffo in the realization of lowered accident rates in the GA community as stated by Associate Administrator for Aviation Safety Nicolas Sabatini This record is due to a dedicated commitment to refuge by everyone in general aviation. (Sweet 2006)It is important to keep a direct headed perspective when dealing with issues of security, especially in the aviation field. At times, the knee-jerk reactionist rules imposed by the TSA may, very well, ensure the security of the issue, but a careful balance must be struck between this tail need for security and essential opportunity for nurtured growth.